1. KEEP IT SHORT Keeping website cop y to the point is something brands often str uggle to achieve. Users tend to pr efer photos and videos , and shun long-text f orms. Fashion retailer Mywardrobe.com, which has used the services of former Grazia editor-in-chief Fiona McIntosh as a consultant, has ax ed much of the editorial on its site after r esearch found that customers had little inter est in reading it, vie wing it as a hindrance to pur chase . Sarah Curran, the site's chief executive, says customers found the volume of editorial on the site the equi valent of having someone stand in fr ont of them at a department store and give a long explanation about the products, when they wanted simpl y to quickly find what they needed and pa y for it. After all, the site's users often shop during a lunch break, for example, curtailing the time they ha ve to devote to content on the site pla Fur tf ther orm mor for e long , gro cop wing y. numbers ar e shopping via mobiles , which are an unsuitable . "They are already surrounded by editorial from their favourite fashion editors and blogs (that inspires them to shop)," adds Cur ran. "A lot of retailers out there are leading with editorial content, w hen the beauty of retail is that it is for people who want to just click and buy." There are exceptions though. Curran adds that users do like editorial they cannot get elsewhere, such as profiles of up-and-coming f ashion designers. 2. USE MEDIA OPTIMALLY Brands can be guilty of losing sight of their objectives by overloading their marketing with content. Hugh Fletcher, national digital manager for Audi, oversees the car brand's online content. "As businesses we overcomplicate the content and think it has to be break-through and innovative every time," he says. "But the most important thing is that it simply has to answer a need." He argues that many web pages tend to be copy-heavy, when what is actually being sought are quick, easy-to-understand explanations. A recent usability study for Audi revealed that many people wanted to know how to link their mobile phone to their car, but found the online explanations too long. "I don't think that as a society we are losing the reading bug, but what we are reading has to be shorter and supplemented with other content," adds Fletcher. "In the past, we explained in long copy how to link your phone to your car, but now we realise our users want copy and video." Audi, he says, is lucky because it has cars that interest people and which they are prepared to go online to discuss, so there is a ready audience for branded content. "I believe it requires encouragement from brands for people to send in their content," says Fletcher. He accepts, however, that it can be tough for many brands in sectors that don't generate the levels of interest of the automotive or fashion industries to get consumers to contribute or participate in social-media commentary. 3 .PEOPLE DON'T CARE ABOUT YOUR BRAND VALUES Eurostar launched its in-train magazine Metropolitan, in 2010. The publication is used as a brandbuilding tool, intended to boost customer loyalty, says Reuben Arnold, Eurostar's head of commercial development. It features articles in English, French and Flemish, targeting visitors to London, Paris and Brussels, and aims to espouse the values of a lifestyle, newsstand magazine. Arnold contends that many airlines' inflight magazines are boring because they are too promotional, with a focus on 'selling', and pay little heed to whether travellers are interested in the content. "It is about being able to talk about the things your brand stands for, but you can't ram those brand values down people's throats," he explains. "We do it subtly, using content to reinforce what we are as a brand. Rather than have a one-page piece saying we are environmentally conscious, we might instead feature a business in Paris that's doing something interesting about sustainability. That is a far more powerful way of communicating our environmental values. Passengers probably don't care much what Eurostar's values are, but you can get them interested in the issues with the right editorial." 4 . UNDERESTIMATING PUBLIC'S SCEPTICISM ABOUT BRANDS Many people, especially in the UK, see brand messages as necessarily self-serving and dubious, so trust has to be fought for, warns David Murray, joint head of planning at ad agency RKCR/Y&R. "There is a natural suspicion of corporate propaganda prevalent in the UK, where we tend to be sceptical of the motivations of brands. Branded content is seen as a bit grubby and desperate," he adds. "Anything that whiffs of short-termism and opportunism is on shaky ground." Murray cites Eurostar's funding of the Shane Meadows film Somers Town as a good example of a subtle use of content that refrained from overtly promoting the brand. Elsewhere, beer brand Beck's sponsorship of independent art projects also carries a sense of altruism and aspiration, he argues; the branding is understated, and many people don't think twice about the sponsorship at art festivals. Murray points, too, to Red Bull's backing of extreme sports and motorsport and Levi's use of music in its ads as powerful examples. Murray adds, however, that for everyday household brands, the brand story needs to be based on the values of the product, which can be hard to achieve through sponsorship, film or other content. "A beer would struggle to build longform content around the subject of refreshment," he says. Such brands need to construct an interesting story from the outset if they want to create intriguing content. Murray identifies Lynx as a brand that has achieved this by attaching itself to the 'mating game'.
5. BELIEVING CO-CREATION IS FOR EVERYONE If a brand is in a low-interest sector, it can scarcely hope to follow Nike, BMW or Burberry by enticing consumers into co-creation. Some packaged grocery brands have tried to imitate the success of the leaders in branded content, and been criticised by industry experts. One example was K i n g s m i l l ' s 'Confessions' c a m p a i g n , created by M&C Saatchi in 2009. It encouraged people to go online and own up to stealing others' 'delicious' sandwiches.The campaign was supported by a TV ad about a woman who stole a sandwich from her husband. It contained the line: "He is convinced he is going cuckoo." Six months in, fewer than 20 'Confessions' videos had been uploaded to YouTube; the campaign ended in late 2010. Other questionable attempts include OXO's drive to encourage people to upload home-made versions of the brand's ads on YouTube. The executions received a few thousand views each on YouTube. A similar campaign by Dolmio asked people to make their own version of the 'Papa Dolmio' ad and upload it; most of the entries attracted fewer than 1000 views. 6. FOCUS ON A MEASURABLE RETURN ON INVESTMENT Brands should refrain from putting too much emphasis on return on investment from the branded content they produce, says Audi's Fletcher. "Working out return on investment from content is not linear," he adds. "The way to think about whether it sells cars is to consider the way we use different channels to buy a car. You don't just watch a TV ad and go out and buy one; you go online, read information and watch content. It gives you a better picture of the cars and brands." Meanwhile, Arnold says Eurostar's Metropolitan pays for itself through advertising, but adds: "It is not designed to make a sale; it is not just a fancy form of advertising. It gives us a voice to communicate with customers." 7. TECHNOLOGY AS A SAVIOUR Aaron Nicholls, business development director at customer publisher Redactive, says brands must think carefully about the technologies and platforms that they use. "Don't use technology for its own sake, just to appear clever," he explains. "It has to work. For our business-to-business clients and brands that don't have vast budgets, it is about choosing what is effective."